The Ultimate guide to Organic Farming in Nepal: Tips and Techniques Organic Farming in Nepal
Spread the love


The ultimate guide to organic farming in Nepal. Organic farming is a type of agriculture that benefits from the recycling and use of natural products. Extensive use of dry foliage and kitchen compost  not only reduces the investment , but also ensures the growth of crops that are free from synthetic interference. The techniques is characterized by the use of green manuring, biological pest control methods and special cultivation techniques to maintain soil productivity. Limiting the use of synthetic fertilizers or completely doing away with them reduces the risk of exposure to aliments that arise on account of synthetic pesticides, ingrained plant growth regulators and the presence of genetically modified organisms in organic food products. Today, organic farming caters to a major and preferred industry worldwide. 

Organic farming works in harmony with nature leading towards sustainable agriculture.

Aims of organic farming

To keep and build good soil structure and fertility by adopting following ways-

  • Recycled and composted crop wastes and animal manures
  • The right soil cultivation at right time 
  • Crop rotation
  • Green manures and legumes
  • Mulching on the soil surface

To control pests, disease and weeds by:

  • Careful planning and crop choice
  • The use of resistant crops 
  • Good cultivation practices
  • Crop rotation
  • Encouraging useful predators that eat pests
  • Increasing genetic diversity
  • Using natural pesticides

Organic farming is a method of agriculture that relies on natural processes and ecological balance to produce crops and livestock.

It is based on two principles-

  1. The substitution of manure and other organic matter as organic fertilizers – organic manures such as 

green manuring, cattle dung ,night soil, town refuse, sewage and poultry litters are most used as organic manures in today’s context. Slaughter wastes ,fish meal, bone meals etc are also popular organic fertilizers.

  1. The use of biological pest control instead of chemical pest control – use of living organisms to suppress pest population such as parasites, predators and parasitoids. use of microbial control like Entomopathogenic virus ,EP nematode, EP fungus ,EP bacteria.

Benefits of organic farming in Nepal

 Lower Growing Cost:

Low expenditure on fertilizer and energy ,reduction in water use and increase retention of  top soil characterized the economics of organic farming by increasing profits. The increasing demand of organic products makes organic farming a profitable option for farmers. 

Enhance Soil Nourishment:

Organic farming includes crop rotation, inter-cropping and extensive use of green manuring .It effectively address soil management. Even damaged soil, subject to erosion and salinity,are able to feed on micro nutrients. Because of no use of chemicals in land there is good population of microbes which increases nourishment of soil. Botanical pesticides like Neem, clove oil, table salt and borax are used for pest control without hampering the growth and quality of crop. Hand weeding or mechanical weeding ,mulching not only get rid of weeds but also guarantee crop quality. 

Increase Drough Tolerance:

Organically grown crops are drough tolerant. Use of chemical fertilizer increase the salt content in cell of plant which  makes plant unable to draw/ absorb water from soil . And leads to death of plants. This problem does not arises in organic farming as we don’t use any sort of chemicals here. 

Environment Friendly Practice:

The use of botanical pesticides such as neem, harro-barro, compost tea, etc are environment friendly and non-toxic. They increases crop defense system and removes pest and disease. 

Beside above mentioned advantages , lower productivity, more skill requirement and time consuming are some disadvantages of organic farming. 

Choosing the right crops 

For organic farming right crops should be chosen . The typical cropping season is also the most susceptible time for disease/pest infestation. So adjusting time of planting  is taken as a key subject of matter. Likewise, vegetables or food crops are sown before a month or two months earlier of the actual time of  sowing. Generally, the curbitaceous crops are forced in late winter at the seedling stage and transplanted in open field for early crop. Similarly, tomato, brinjal, sweet potato, cucumber and squash are also forced at the young stage during late winter in mid and high hills.  

1.Normal season March-MayJune-August
2.Off-season productionJan-FebApril-June

Local climate, soil condition and market demand should be considered. The agro-ecological climate of one region becomes off season in another region. 

Eg: In high hill of Tistung, Palung & Daman, farmers can produce cauliflower, cabbage, leafy vegetables, and peas during summer & rainy seasons & supply to markets of KTM valley, Pokhara and Terai regions.

Similarly , farmers of  low hills and terai regions can produce tomato ,brinjal, sweet pepper & cucumber during spring and winter season & supply to market of mid hill and high hills. 

Crop Rotation 

Rotation of crops or change in  the sequence of cropping patterns result in much lower incidence of pests and increase fertility of soil. Crop rotation also means that succeeding crops are of a different genus, species, subspecies or variety that previous crop.

 1.Planting of leguminous crops like pea, beans, berseem alternate to cereal crops increases nitrogen fixation in the land which reduces the requirement of nitrogen fertilizer for the growth and development.  Eg: Soybean followed by corn.

 2. The alternate combination of corn with cabbage is a good rotation combination for the physical properties of the soil. 

Nepalese agriculture system and the cropping pattern are highly dominated by the geography and the culture. Rice-wheat, rice-legume, rice-wheat-maize, rice-wheat-rice are some of the most common cropping systems in Nepal. All these pattern are highly appreciated by the rural farmers and being best alternative for income generation helping in the reduction of the poverty too.


Composting is the process of breaking down organic material like leaves, yard waste, kitchen wastes into nutrient rich soil .The natural  aerobic decomposition process  yields nutrient-rich soil amendments (dark and earthy smelling material).It is completed with the coordinated activity of water, air, organic material and micro organisms. It can be done in small scale in backyard compost bin or can be done on a large scale in commercial level.

The Ultimate Guide To Organic Farming In Nepal: Tips And Techniques 2023

Benefits of composting

  • Retains more water which reduces the irrigation frequency of water 
  • Restore top soil and build stable soil structure
  • Carbon sequestration i.e accumulation of carbon inside the soil
  • Provides necessary nutrients to the soil like Nitrogen &Phosphorous
  • Reduces green house gas emission
  • Management of degradable wastes helps to control 


Compost making process 

  •   Material Required 

         Pine needles 


         Dried leaves

                Dried grass 



                Shredded cardboard and paper

                Chopped wood prunings 

                Citrus rinds 

                Coffee grounds 

                Grass and shrub clippings

                Fruit waste 


                Coffee filters

  Young weeds

  Wilted flowers 

  Vegetable waste

Not suitable for composting:

 Animal products (fish, bones, meat, fat) , Dairy products , Sawdust from treated wood , Diseased plants ,Human waste, Weeds that bear seeds such as ivy, oxalis bulbs, burr clover, and Bermuda grass, etc.

  •  Procedure

Step 1- choose a site in a hidden location with    access of water,  a good airflow, partial shade during the summer, and full sun during the winter.

Step 2- pile twigs and straw few inches deep to   allow drainage and airflow.

Step 3- add compost ingredients 

Step 4- incorporate manure : adding nitrogen source for activation and sped up composting process.

Step 5- keep pile moist :occasional watering  

Step 6- cover pile : doing so retains moisture and heat, which are essential in making your compost. Covering your pile also prevents it from being overly soaked by rainwater.

Step 7- Turning pile :Give  pile a turn every few weeks using a pitchfork. Doing so generates oxygen into your compost pile, which can aid in aerating compost and increasing the composting process.

Types of composting 

  1. Hot composting 
  2. Cold composting
  3. Vermiculture or worm composting

Composting takes four to six months in hot composting and six to twelve months in passive composting .

Biological Pest Control

Use of  living organisms and microbial organism for control of disease and pest are biological pest control.

Living organisms like parasites, predators, parasitoids are used as control agent,

Micro-organisms like Entomopathogenic virus ,EP fungi, EP nematodes , EP bacteria are used. 

Image: parasitoid wasp parasiting a caterpillar 


  • Specificity to the target organisms 
  • Safe to humans, animals and environment
  • There is no problem of phyto-toxicity or resistance 
  • Once they get established , they continue to perpetuate themselves and maintain equilibrium for many years
  • Even those initial cost is high, it is economical in long run

Biological control agents rearing and release by NARC

Trichogramma chilonis (Parasitoid)

Trichogramma japonica (Parasitoid)

Chrysoperla carnea (General predator)

Orgilus lepidus (Parasitoid of PTM)

Copidosoma koehleri (Parasitoid of PTM)

In situ maintenance of Aphelinus mali (Parasitoid wasp) of Eriosoma lanigerum (Wooly apple aphid)

Isolation and testing of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

  •  Water Hyacinth management by importing and utilizing Neochetina bruchi and N. eichhorniae from ARS/USDA,Florida
  •  Parthenium management – by Zygogramma bicolorata

 Water Management 

Farming system of Nepal is rainfed based farming system. Irrigation is done at only in critical stages .Being second riches country in water resources our country nepal is facing drough problem every year rain due to delay in rainfall. 

To tackle the problem and to save water, proper management of water resources should be carried out.

  • Harvesting of rain water is the best measure to store water for further use
  • Use of drip irrigation technique
  • Alternate row irrigation in  crops like potato
  • Planting of shallow rooted crops after deep rooted crops
Organic Farming: Introduction , Organic farming in Nepal

What is organic farming?

Organic farming is a method of growing crops without the use of pesticides and fertilizers. It includes sustainable natural farming practices that work with nature rather than against it.

Why is organic farming important?

Organic farming is important because it helps maintain a healthy environment, reduces pollution and soil erosion, improves soil fertility, and provides nutritious food contains and is powerful. It supports local economies and promotes sustainable agriculture.

How do I start organic farming in Nepal?

To start under organic farming in Nepal, you need to choose the right place, choose the right crops, prepare the soil, use organic fertilizers and pesticides , and you follow good agricultural practices. Get training and support from government or NGOs.

What are the benefits of organic farming?

Organic farming has many benefits including improving soil fertility, reducing pollution and soil erosion, conserving water, supplying healthy and nutritious food production, supporting communities, and promoting sustainable agriculture.

What are the most common challenges in organic farming in Nepal?

Some common challenges in organic farming in Nepal are lack of knowledge and training, unavailability of organic inputs and technologies, pests and diseases


Organic farming is a method of sustainable farming that aims to produce nutritious and safe food while preserving the environment. It promotes the use of natural resources and prohibits the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and genetically modified organisms. Organic agriculture encourages crop rotation, composting and the use of cover crops to improve soil health, prevent soil erosion and enhance biodiversity to the sky Research has shown that organic farming can increase soil fertility, improve crop yields, and better resist pests and diseases Organic farming also contributes to greenhouse gases reduce greenhouse gas emissions, conserve water, and protect wildlife and ecosystems. However, organic farming also has some challenges, such as high labor costs, low yields in some cases, lack of organic inputs and organic inputs buying it can also be very expensive for consumers. Overall, organic farming offers a promising alternative to conventional agriculture, providing a sustainable food supply that prioritizes the health of people and the planet. 


Bindu Sharma

Also Read. Traditional Nepali Foods for a Healthy Diet

Similar Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *